Spesialis Rumah Adat Kudus


Mengapa kami spesialis Rumah Adat Kudus?
Ya. Model Rumah Adat Kudus itu termasuk yang paling detail, paling rumit, paling sulit membuatnya. Ukiran tiga dimensi, kecil-kecil, rapi, berpola dan kaya dengan filosofi hidup. Karena rumah adalah cermin sebuah keluarga. Model Rumah Adat Kudus ini juga dikenal dengan gaya Mojopahitan (ala Majapahit).

Jika Anda berkendara dari Kota Semarang ke Kudus, sekitar 60 kilometer, selepas kota Demak, di sepanjang kiri kanan jalan akan anda temui, model rumah adat Kudus yang khas. Gentingnya ada ornamen-ornamen mirip kepala wayang kulit, dari kiri kanan, dan sampai di puncak. Di paling tengah puncaknya itu dibuat paling besar, seperti mustika-nya, atau crown-nya.

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Mengapa Rumah Adat Kudus ini paling mahal?
Pertama, karena semua terbuat dari kayu jati, minimal 95 persen.
Kedua, semua sisi diukir lembut, detail, berpola.
Ketiga, mahal tidaknya tergantung dari lebar dan panjang soko guru, empat tiang yang ada di paling tengah, yang menyangga beban paling besar.

Pembuatan atau produksi rumah adat Kudus ini membutuhkan waktu 7 bulan, untuk ukuran 10×12 meter, plus 2 meter teras rumahnya.

Proses pemasangan, dibutuhkan waktu 7 hari non stop.

Tumpangsari juga menentukan status social dan mahal tidaknya harga rumah kayu ini. Paling tinggi derajadnya, dengan 9 tumpang sari.

AKULTURASI
Bangsa Indonesia itu sangat menghargai seni dan budaya. Bukan hanya yang asli dari negeri, tetapi juga yang berasal dari luar. Rumah Adat Kudus adalah rumah tradisional yang mencerminkan akulturasi kebudayaan warga Kudus. Ada atap berbentuk Joglo Pencu, dengan bangunan yang didominasi seni ukir empat dimensi khas Kota Kudus. Jika dilihat dari motif ukirannya, itu yang merupakan perpaduan gaya seni ukir Hindu, Persia (Islam), Cina, dan Eropa.
Rumah model ini diperkirakan mulai dibangun sekitar tahun 1500-an M dengan bahan baku utama (95%) dari kayu jati berkualitas tinggi dengan sistem pemasangan knock-down ( bongkar pasang tanpa paku).

BERMAKNA
Bukan hanya keindahan arsitekturnya menjadi andalan Rumah Adat Kudus. Tetapi ada juga kelengkapan komponen pembentuknya yang memiliki makna filosofis berbeda-beda.

Pertama:
Bentuk dan motif ukirannya mengikuti pola, semacam laba-laba berkaki banyak, gajah penunggu, rangkaian bunga melati, motif ular naga, buah nanas (sarang lebah), motif burung, dll.

Kedua:
Tata ruang rumah adat, ada jogo satru ruang tamu dengan soko geder/tiang tunggal sebagai simbol Ketuhanan Yang Maha Esa. Sila Pertama dari Pancasila. Bagian ini berfungsi sebagai pengingat bagi penghuni rumah agar senantiasa menjaga keimanan dan kepercayaannya.

Ketiga:
Gedhongan senthong/ruang keluarga yang ditopang empat buah soko guru/tiang penyangga, yang biasanya dibuat paling besar, tinggi dan lurus. Empat tiang itu maknanya, ajakan agar penghuni rumah mampu menyangga kehidupannya sehari-hari, dengan mengendalikan empat sifat dasar manusia. Yakni amarah (dorongan untuk melakukan kemaksiatan), lawwamah (dorongan mengkoreksi diri sendiri), shofiyah (kelembutan hati), mutmainnah (dorongan untuk berbuat kebajikan).

Keempat:
Pawon/dapur di bagian paling belakang bangunan rumah, tempat masak memasak. Saat ini dalam rumah modern, yang berkembang adalah, dapur di tengah atau depan. Ada istilah dapur basah, dapur kering.
Kelima:
Pakiwan (kamar mandi) sebagai simbol agar manusia selalu membersihkan diri baik fisik maupun non fisik.

Keenam:
Tanaman direkomendasi dipelihara di sekitar pakiwan, antara lain: pohon belimbing, yang melambangkan lima rukun Islam, karena ada lima sisir di belimbing. Pandan wangi, sebagai simbol rejeki yang harum/halal dan baik. Bunga melati, untuk melukiskan keharuman, perilaku yang baik budi pekerti luhur, dan kesucian.

Ketujuh:
Menghadap ke Selatan, maknanya agar si pemilik rumah seolah-olah tidak “memangku” Gunung Muria (yang terletak di sebelah utara), karena rumah ini berkembang di Kudus. Dengan begitu tidak memperberat kehidupannya sehari-hari.
Kalau di daerah Solo, Jogja, ada mitos sebaiknya menghadap ke laut selatan, untuk menghormati penguasa laut selatan.

UKIRAN KHAS KUDUS

Mengapa Rumah Adat Kudus itu paling tersohor? Paling terkenal di jagad seni ukir kuno di Indonesia? Lebih punya nama daripada Jogjakarta dan Surakarta yang memiliki keraton dengan tradisi ukir? Baik di Kasultanan, Paku Alaman Jogja, maupun Kasunanan dan Mangkunegaran Solo? Bahkan lebih popular dengan ukiran Jepara, yang banyak disebut sebagai Kota Ukir?

Ini jawabannya. Sejarah seni ukir di Kudus sejatinya sudah dimulai sejak seorang imigran dari Tiongkok yang bernama The Ling Sing tiba pada abad 15. Beliau datang ke lereng Gunung Muria itu tidak hanya menyebarkan ajaran Islam, tetapi juga menekuni keahliannya dalam kesenian mengukir. Aliran kesenian The Ling Sing adalah Sun Ging. Seni ukir yang halus dan bermotif indah. Dari daerah Kudus inilah beliau banyak menerima murid yang mempelajari agama maupun seni ukir.
Beda Ukiran Kudus dan Jepara

  1. Seni ukir di Kudus berkembang pada pembuatan rumah.
  2. Ukirannya halus dan indah.
  3. bunganya kecil-kecil dan bisa 2 atau 3 dimensi.

Sedangkan ukiran Jepara

  1. Seni Ukir Jepara berkembang pada peralatan rumah tangga.
  2. Misalnya almari, meja, tempat tidur, kursi dan lain-lain.
  3. Bentuk sulur ukir-ukirannya besar-besar.

Ukiran Kudus itu tercermin dari rumah adat Kudus.
Rumah adat Kudus terdiri dari beberapa motif ukiran yang dipengaruhi budaya Cina, Hindu, Islam, Eropa.

VARIASI MOTIF
Motif dan gaya seni ukir itu bervariasi:

  • Motif China berupa ukiran naga yang terletak pada bangku kecil untuk masuk ruang dalam.
  • Motif Hindu digambarkan dalam bentuk perpaduan yang terdapat di gebyok ( pembatas antara ruang Jogo Satru dan ruang dalam )
  • Motif Persia / Islam digambarkan dalam bentuk bunga, terdapat dalam ruang Jogo Satru
  • Motif Eropa digambarkan dalam bentuk mahkota yang terdapat diatas pintu masuk ke gedongan.

Ragam hias ukiran, misalnya : pola kala dan gajah penunggu, rangkaian bunga melati (sekar rinonce), motif ular naga, buah nanas (sarang lebah), motif burung phoenix, dan lain-lain.

GENTING RUMAH ADAT KUDUS

Salah satu yang memikat perhatian orang adalah genting rumah adat Kudus. Dari bentuk rumah adatnya sendiri sudah unik. Namanya Joglo Pencu. Tengahnya tetap ada 4 sokoguru, ada tumpang sari, atapnya tinggi menjulang, berkesan anggun dan perkasa.
Perhatikan atap rumah adat Kudur baik-baik! Di atas genteng bertengger gendeng yang pada umumnya kepala gendeng bermotif tumbuh-tumbuhan (sulur-suluran) sebagai ciri budaya Islam. Ada beberapa jenis gendeng yaitu gendeng wedok (gelung cekak), gendeng gajah (gendeng pendamping di bubungan atap ), gendeng raja (gendeng tengah pada bubungan atap). Pada puncak atap bertengger gendeng raja dengan motif tumbuh-tumbuhan.

LEVELING RUMAH KUDUS (ilustrasi foto trap-trapan, bantalan rel kereta api, sketsa)

Fisik bangunan rumah adat Kudus berdiri di atas landasan alas yang terdiri dari 5 trap di atas permukaan tanah yaitu bancik kapisan (trap terbawah), bancik kapindo (kedua), bancik katelu (ketiga), Jogan Jogosatru (trap lantai ruang depan), Jogan Lebet (trap lantai ruang dalam).

TATA RUMAH KUDUS
Tata rumah adat Kudus tampak sederhana, dan terdiri beberapa ruangan yaitu : Jogo satru yaitu ruangan depan yang sekarang difungsikan sebagai ruang tamu. Didalam ruangan Jogo satru terdapat satu tiang yang disebut Soko Geder. Ruang dalam ( inti ) berfungsi sebagai kamar-kamar dan gedongan (kamar utama) yang digunakan untuk menyimpan kekayaan dan sebagai kamar tidur kepala keluarga.

Di ruang dalam ini terdapat kerangka bangunan yang ditumpu oleh 4 buah sokoguru. Di atas keempat soko guru terdapat Pangeret Tumpang Songo (kamuncak berlapis sembilan) yang semakin ke atas semakin mengecil. Pawon ( ruang keluarga ) digunakan untuk aktifitas keluarga (ruang makan, ruang bermain anak dan dapur).
Sebagai kelengkapan gaya arsitektur tradisional rumah adat Kudus ini terdapat Pakiwan (berupa sumur, kamar mandi dan padasan/tempat wudlu ) Biasanya terletak di depan rumah sebelah kiri sejajar dengan pawon. Pada umumnya rumah adat Kudus selalu menghadap ke selatan karena :

  1. Sinar matahari pagi bisa masuk kedalam rumah sehingga kesehatan penghuninya terjamin.
  2. Bila musim kemarau tritisan depan rumah tidak langsung terkena sinar matahari sehingga tetap adem
  3. Bila musim penghujan tritisan rumah terlindung dari hujan sehingga bagian depan rumah tidak diterpa air hujan terus menerus dan aman dari bahaya lapuk

PERAWATAN UKIRAN RUMAH KUDUS
Salah satu keunikan Rumah Adat Kudus yang juga cukup menarik adalah tatacara perawatan nya. Ada cara yang mudah, murah, dan sudah terbukti bagus dengan cara tradisional dan sudah turun-temurun dari generasi ke generasi. Jenis bahan dasar yang digunakan adalah ramuan yang diperoleh dari pengalaman empiris pemiliknya.
Yakni ramuan APT (Air Pelepah Pohon Pisang dan Tembakau) dan ARC (Air Rendaman Cengkeh). Ramuan ini terbukti efisien dan efektif mampu mengawetkan kayu jati, bahan dasar Rumah Adat Kudus, dari serangan rayap (termite) dan sekaligus meningkatkan pamor dan permukaan kayu menjadi lebih bersih, karena ramuan APT dan ARC dioleskan berulang-ulang ke permukaan dan komponen-komponen bangunan kayu jati.
Hubungi Marketing Art Gallery Raja Pendapa.
Di
Eleonora Aprilita
08122865434.

PIN BBM : 2AFDA819
auraarga@yahoo.com
auraarga@gmail.com
twitter @noraaprilita


Why are we specializing on Kudus traditional house ?
Yes. The model of Kudus traditional house has the most complicated and detailed as well and it is the hardest thing to make. It has three dimensional carving, complicated and neat with full of philosphical values. It is because a house is a reflection of a family. The model of Kudus tradional house is known as a house with Majapahit style.

If you drive from Semarang to Kudus, it is about 60 kilometers, soon after passing Demak city, you will find some typical Kudus traditional houses on the left and the right sides of the road. There are some tile from the left to the right till the the top of the roof. ornaments exposing head-like leather wayang (= Javanese traditional puppet made of animal leather shown at night ). In th emiddle part is made bigger just like as its crown.

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Why is a Kudus house expensive ?
Firstly, it is because it is made of teak wood, at least 95 percents.
Secondly, all sides are detaily carved and well patterned.
Thirdly, the price is determined by the width and the length of the main coloumn, four pillars in the center which hold the heaviest burden.

The production of Kudus traditional house needs 7 months for 10 x 12 meters size plus 2 meters of its terrace.
The process of constructing needs 7 days non-stop.

Tumpangsari (=decorative ornaments placed on the top roof) also shows the social status and the price of the house. It is as valuable as 9 tumpangsari.

Acculturation
Indonesian appreciate their art and cultures not only from the domestic but also from foreign countries. Kudus traditional house reflects the acculturation from some cultures. The Joglo Pencu roof is the original Kudus culture decorated with the four dimensional carvings typical from Kudus. Seen from its design, it is the style mixture of carvings from Hindu, Persia (Islam), China and Europe.
These kinds of house are predicted to be built in around 1500 A.M. of which main materials (90%) are from high quality teak wood with knock down system ( without nails).

Meaningful
It is not only the beauty of its architecture which becomes the special thing from Kudus house but also the complete components which have various philosophical meanings.

Firstly:
The form and the design of the carvings follow the pattern like spider, guardian elephant, bouquet of jasmine flowers, dragons, pineapples, hive, birds, etc.

Secondly:
There is a Jogo Satru with a single coloumn in the setting of Kudus house which reflects the symbol of the almighty God, as mentioned in the first principle of Pancasila ; Believe in the one Almighty God. This part is functioned as the reminder for the owner to keep their faith.

Thirdly:
Gedhongan senthong (=livingroom/guestroom) held by four main coloumns which are made big, high and straight. The four coloumns are meant to remind the owner to be able to support his/her life by controlling four basic human nature such as the amarah (the impulse to do bad things), the lawwamah (the impulse to do self instrospection), the shofiyah (the impulse to have heart tenderness), the mutmainnah (the impulse to do good things).

Forthly:
Pawon (=kitchenette) located in the back pasrt of the house; a place for cooking and preparing food. Nowadays, in a modern house, the position of a kitchen is in the front or in th emiddle of the house. It has wet and dry kitchen.

Fiftly:
Pakiwan (=bathroom) . It is a symbol for human to keep cleaning themselves physically or non-physically.

Sixthly:
The recommended plants grown around pakiwan such as star fruit three, symbolizing the five principles in Islam as there are five sides on the fruit, Pandanwangi symbolizing the nice fragrance of the permitted livelihood, jasmine tree symbolizing the holiness and the fragrance of human conduct/behaviour.

Seventhly:
Facing to the South is meant that the house does not consider as if it held mount Muria (located in the North) as the house is in Kudus. It symbolizes that the house will not give burden to the owner in everyday life.
When the house is in Solo or Jogja area, it is recommended to build the house facing to the South in respecting the Goddess of the South Sea.

KUDUS TYPICAL CARVING
Why is Kudus traditional house is the most popular in the old Indonesian carving art ? why is it the most popular of all the carving art in Jogjakarta and Surakarta which have the tradition of carving art and palaces (=Kasultanan palace and Pakualaman palace in Jogyakarta, Kasunanan palace and Mangkunegaran palace in Surakarta) ? even more popular than Jepara which is so called as the city of carving ?
This is the answer; the history of carving art is originally from a Chinese immigrant namely The Ling Sing who arrived in the rim of Mount Muria in 15th century. He not only had a mission of teaching Islam but also taught his skill in carving art to the local people. The Ling Sing’s style in carving is Sun Ging; the art of smooth and beautifully-designed carving. From this area (=Kudus) he accepted many students who learnt Islam and the art of carving at the same time.

The Differences between the Kudus and Jepara Carving.
Kudus carving art develops in constructing a house. Its carving is smooth at beautiful It has two or three dimensional small flowers carving.
While Jepara carving art develops in making household tools; desks, beds, chairs etc. Its carving is big and climbing upward.
Kudus carving style can be seen or reflected from Kudus traditional house consisting some designs influenced by the culture of China, Hindu, Islam and Europe.

VARIED IN STYLES
Design and style in carving are different.
Chinese style is described in the form of dragon which is carved on the small bench for entering the inside room.
Hindu style is described in the combination form as seen in gebyok (= a partition between Jogo Satru room (=guestroom) and the inside room)
Persian style / Islam is described in the form of flowers in the room of Jogo Satru (=the guest room)
European style is described in the form of crown which is carved in the top of the entrance door of gedongan room.
The decorative carving styles such as ; kala (=giant), guardian elephant, sekar rinonce (=bouquete of jasmine) , dragon, pineapple (hive), phoenix bird etc.

TILES IN KUDUS TRADITIONAL HOUSE
Tile of Kudus traditional house become something that impresses people. We can find the uniqueness from the house itself which is so called Joglo Pencu . in the middle of the house, there are 4 sokoguru (= main pillars), tumpangsari (= top roof decoration) and its high roof which gives tough and graceful impression.
Let’s see carefully the tiles of Kudus traditional house! On the top decorative part of the tiles, there lie gendengs which commonly have vegetation motif (sulur-suluran) as the characteristic of Islamic culture. There some kinds of gendengs namely gendeng wedok (=female gendeng) or (gelung cekak), gendeng gajah (=elephant gendeng) or (supporting gendeng on the ridge of the roof) , gendeng raja (=king gendeng) or (the middle gendeng on the ridge of the roof) while on the top, there lies gendeng raja with vegetation motif.

LEVELING Of KUDUS HOUSE
The physical appearance of Kudus traditional house stands on the base consisting 5 levels on the ground. They are bancik kapisan (=the lowest level), bancik kapindo (the second level), bancik katelu (the third level), Jogan Jogosatru (=the level of the front floor), Jogan Lebet (=the level of the inside room floor).

THE SETTING OF KUDUS HOUSE
The setting of Kudus house looks simple consisting of some rooms ; Jogo satru is the front room functioned as the guestroom or livingroom. The inside part of this room, there is one pillar/coloumn which is so called Soko Geder. While the inside room (the main) functioned as rooms and gedongan (the main room) which is used for keeping treasure and functioned as the head of family’s bedroom.

In the inside room, there is skecth of the house which is supported by 4 sokoguru (=main pillars). Above the main pillars, there lies Pangeret Tumpang Songo (kamuncak) consisting 9 levels which is getting narrower when it goes to the top. Pawon (=family room ) is used to do family activities ; diningroom, kitchen and room for children to play.

As the completion of architectural style of Kudus traditional house, there is Pakiwan (consisting well, bathroom, padasan (=special area for rinsing/cleaning before taking a pray for moslem) ) this area is usually located on the left side of the house in line with Pawon. Generally, Kudus traditional houses face to the South. It is because firstly, morning sun light can go through the house so that the health of the people who live in the house is surely guaranteed. Secondly, the terrace of the house will keep cool in the dry season as it is not exposed the sunlight directly. Thirdly, the terrace of the house will be protected from the rain in the wet season so it will be safe and wood decay can be avoided.

MAINTENING THE CARVING OF KUDUS HOUSE
Maintaining Kudus traditional house is quite unique and interesting. There is an easy and cheap way in maintaining it. It is proven to be the best way by using traditional way and it is inherited from generation to generation. The material used is kinds of ingredients obtained from the empirical experience of the owner.
The ingredients used are the mixture from the water of banana mid rib and the soaked clove water. The ingredients are efficiently and effectively proven to protect teak wood, the basic material for Kudus traditional house, from termite and at the same time it can maximize the splendor of it beside it can make the surface of the wood cleaner, as the ingredients are applied repeatedly on it and on the components of teak wood.

Please contact :
Marketing Art Gallery Raja Pendapa.
Eleonora Aprilita 08122865434 / PIN BBM : 2AFDA819
auraarga@yahoo.com
auraarga@gmail.com
twitter @noraaprilita

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